Warp Space

Universe Formation from Gravitationally Bound Structures

Acceleration of Dominant Supermassive Black Hole Singularities

Serving as the Catalyst of Dark Energy in the Formation of Universes

9 November 2012

Dark energy accelerates the space warp of dominant supermassive black hole singularities to the speed of light.

As the gravitational attraction between the singularity and the universe drops effectively to zero, the velocity of the singularity increases its warp of space [4, 52] and eventually warps space at the speed of light pushed by dark energy. As the speed of the singularity increases, it effectively gains mass which is coming from the dark energy driving the acceleration. Dark energy accounts for about 75 percent of the mass of the universe now, and as the universe expands, the amount of dark energy increases. It is the most likely source of energy for forming the next generation of universes. Since acceleration adds to mass, the singularity mass will increase by several orders of magnitude as it reaches the speed of light. The force that dark energy applies to a singularity is analogous to water pressure that is expressed as p = gdr where pressure, p, is equal to the gravitational acceleration, g, times the distance, d, times the density of the singularity, r. This equation is simplified as there are more variables and other factors; however, it shows the enormous forces that are involved.

The following analogy may be helpful in understanding the process of singularity acceleration. Imagine a three-dimensional rotating cylinder made of a very stretchy, flexible membrane. Varying sizes of spheres are located on the membrane. They press into and warp the membrane from the centripetal force as the cylinder spins. This cylinder analogy has several additional characteristics. The spheres are attracted to each other and can move around on the membrane. When two spheres merge, they become a single sphere. A layer of water covers the membrane. When two spheres are close, their holes will merge. The more massive balls stretch the membrane more and have deeper holes that get even deeper every time a sphere falls into its hole. Water drains into the largest depressions and causes the spheres to stretch the membrane deeper. The sphere accelerates, moving ever deeper as the water pressure increases and the distance from the axis rotational speed increases. The mass of the sphere increases as water is absorbed. This is analogous to the increase of mass caused by the acceleration of a body. When the force from acceleration of the sphere exceeds the strength of the fabric, the sphere breaks loose and explodes. Dark energy also applies force to black hole singularities, accelerating the bending of space, i.e. singularity acceleration. The largest and first spheres will drain the greatest amount of water and will make the largest explosions. Smaller spheres will receive less water and in most cases may not break the cylinder fabric.

Contrast of the bursting singularity and the Smolin bouncing black hole theory

In general, the singularity acceleration hypothesis could be classified within the bouncing black hole theories of universe formation. [42] The term “burst” might provide a better resemblance of the phenomena, as “bounce” implies a change of direction.

The singularity acceleration model posits that a singularity warps space at the speed of light, bursting from its universe, leaving its universe’s laws, entering a phase transition to become a naked singularity, and causing a big bang to form a new universe with new physical laws. The singularity acceleration model maintains that density alone cannot cause gravity to become repellant and that the only limit to the mass of a singularity is the amount of mass available to it from its galaxy and cluster. The discovery of NGC 4889 lends support to the idea that black holes have, in principle, no maximum size limit and are only constrained by the mass available to them in their galaxy cluster.

The Smolin bouncing black hole model posits that the universe is created as an explosion by an extraordinarily compressed black hole at Planck density which causes gravity to become repellant due to quantum corrections and causes a big bang.[42]

The two hypotheses explain universe formation with certain parallel functions as cosmological evolution and the importance of black holes, but differ for example on the importance of scale. Lee Smolin was an early proponent of and has been one of the most articulate physicists explaining cosmological evolution. [42, 43] He maintained that cosmological evolution favors universes that maximize the number of black holes, whereas the singularity acceleration hypothesis maintains that universe formation is maximized for some extraordinarily supermassive black holes.

Something from nothing

The Krauss “something from nothing” universe formation theory posits that the “nothing” in space can be part of the expansion by using virtual particles. The “something from nothing” proposed by Lawrence Krauss maintains that “…our observable universe can start out as a microscopically small region of space… and still grow to enormous scales containing… all without costing a drop of energy, with enough matter and radiation to account for everything we see today!” [18]

The singularity acceleration model is compatible with the Krauss process; however, it requires the Krauss process to occur as part of a sequence with other events. Set 1 of the universe formation Axioms rules out a one-step process. It implies that the Krauss “something from nothing” process needs the catalyst of the acceleration of a supermassive black hole singularity to cause “small-density fluctuations in empty space due to the rules of quantum mechanics… [To] be responsible for all the structure…in the universe.” [18]

Axiom 6. Supermassive black hole singularities can bend space at the speed of light.

Black hole singularities accelerate as their mass increases relative to the combined mass of the galaxies that are gravitationally bound to them. The weaker the gravitational attraction between the singularity and the galaxy, the more effectively dark energy can be in pushing the singularity and warping space at an accelerated rate.

A. Mass warps space and extraordinarily massive black holes force extreme warps that, under certain conditions, reach the speed of light and lead to singularity acceleration and eventual separation from the universe.

As the black hole gains mass, two important things occur. First, it compresses all of its matter and energy into a singularity that moves by stretching or warping space. Mass bends or warps space, and the more massive an object, the more space bends. [28] Secondly, a black hole singularity’s mass breaks the equilibrium between it and the constraining gravitational forces of its galaxy, causing it to increasingly warp space and move farther away from its galaxy, reducing their mutual attraction.

This hypothesis maintains that massive objects warp space in measurable distances. For example, set the position in space of a star at a hypothetical point A, with relativity turned off. Then, turn on relativity and the star will be at point B, which is some distance from point A. The difference between these two points is real but can only be seen indirectly by an observer in three-dimensional space. If the mass of the star is increased, the length of this line increases and the object is now at point C. The distance between B and C is real and can also be measured. With black hole singularities, the distance can be quite significant, and as black holes absorb other black holes, stars, and other objects, the singularity moves farther along this line. Its distance is related to its mass and that of the galaxy and cluster.

B. Dark energy accelerates the space warp of dominant supermassive black hole singularities to the speed of light.

Over eons, as dark energy expands the universe, thereby decreasing the effective gravitational attraction between the universe and its galaxy clusters, and when singularities achieve sufficient mass relative to any surrounding galaxy, the rate at which they will accelerate in a space warp increases. Dominant supermassive black holes that have consumed most of their galaxy, galaxy cluster, and supercluster have exceptionally large black holes which allow more force to be applied by dark energy, increasing the singularity acceleration. The gravitational attraction between the singularity and its galaxy decreases as the galaxy loses mass to the black hole. The singularity’s acceleration is assisted by dark energy in the same way it is causing the universe to expand and accelerate.

The largest and first dominant supermassive black hole singularities to form in a galaxy cluster will receive almost all of dark energy available in the cluster. Dominant supermassive black holes formed later will be smaller, will receive relatively proportionally less dark energy, and may not receive enough energy to escape the universe.

Dark energy propels the singularity in a space warp, in effect, increasing its mass. According to the law of momentum conservation, the mass of the singularity depends on its speed. Thus, as dark energy is applied to the movement of the singularity, it effectively increases the mass of both the singularity and the new universe it will form. Based on Einstein’s equation, if an object at rest has a mass M, moving at a speed v it will have mass m = mo / [1-(v/c)2] ˝. When v and c are nearly equal, mass becomes very large. The equation applies to universe formation; therefore, when the singularity separates from the universe as its gravitational attraction becomes zero, a phase transition occurs and all of the dark energy is converted to the mass of the singularity. This equation states that when v = c, the mass becomes infinite. Since we know that cannot happen, it is reasonable to assume that this law is suspended during the phase transition.

C. The structure or fabric of space-time, referred to as the stress-energy tensor, has a mass and energy equivalent and can functionally be treated mathematically as a force and be measured by gravity. [29, 30] “In general relativity, gravity can be regarded as not a force but a consequence of a curved spacetime geometry where the source of curvature is the stress-energy tensor [representing matter, for instance].” [31]

There are three concepts that are plausible for describing gravitation and modeling singularity movement: general relativity, M-theory, and dark matter dimension. Any of these theories are compatible with the singularity acceleration hypothesis; however, for purposes of simplicity the dimension in which black hole singularities move will be referred to as a space warp. Resolving which theory provides the best model requires information not available; however, working constructs are plausible with each of these theories of dimensional space. General relativity space-time provides an adequate model to explain the movement of black hole singularities. M-theory and string theory have the theoretical flexibility to accommodate singularity acceleration. Dark matter and dark energy may exist in different dimensions than do matter and energy but have gravity in common with them. The acceleration of black hole singularities can also be modeled in multi-dimensional systems.