Simultaneous Universe Expansion and Galaxy Cluster Consolidation

Are Essential To Making More Universes

Acceleration of Dominant Supermassive Black Hole Singularities

Serving as the Catalyst of Dark Energy in the Formation of Universes

Universe Formation Home Page

11 November 2012

 

How a black hole singularity can form a large universe

The following four phenomena summarize how a black hole can make a big bang large enough to form a universe the size of ours.

Galaxy clusters consolidate into dominant supermassive black holes.

These three factors cause a reduction of gravitational attraction between dominant supermassive black holes and all other matter:

The space warp increases as the singularity gains mass, increasing the distance between the black hole singularity and its galaxy.

The galaxy cluster loses mass to the black hole singularity, reducing its attractive force on the singularity.

Dark energy pushes the rest of the universe beyond the event horizon of the black hole, substantially reducing the gravitation attraction between the two.

Dominant supermassive black hole singularities act as a catalyst for dark energy which provides most of the mass for a new universe. Dark energy is added to the mass of the singularity by the law of conservation of motion [38] during the dark dimension acceleration of the singularity to the speed of light.

The big bang mass-multiplying effect, summarized by the equation Mu= S2.C2, may be a CP violation or equivalent function that occurs during the big bang phase transition.

 

The idea that a black hole singularity was the cause of the Big Bang that formed our universe might be widely accepted if the difference in mass between the two was not so great. The table in figure 2 lists a plausible means for a supermassive black hole to be a credible cause of a universe-forming big bang. It is likely that more massive black holes in even larger galaxies and galaxy clusters will be found and that one of these yet undiscovered giant black holes, using singularity acceleration, could produce an even larger universe than our own; however, NGC 4889 is the largest known black hole to date and is used as the example in figure 2.

Applying the results of the cosmological process analysis to our universe starting at the Big Bang, the sequence of major events is grouped into five somewhat overlapping eras.

1. The very early epochs of the universe from the Planck epoch through the photon epoch is explained in numerous documents elsewhere. [44, 46]

2. The structural formation universe begins with the formation of stars, black holes, galaxies, galaxy clusters, and a supercluster. Dark energy contributes to the acceleration of the expanding universe. The gravitational force of baryonic mater and dark matter holds together galaxies, galaxy clusters, and in some cases galaxy filaments, also called supercluster complexes or great walls, to the extent that many of these components remain gravitationally bound despite the expansion of the universe.

3. The consolidation era begins during the structural formation era and continues at least 1014 years after the big bang in which supermassive black holes come to dominate the universe. Black holes at the center of galaxies consume stars, dust, and gas, and when orbit disturbance, caused by collisions with other galaxies, occurs, the rate greatly increases as the black holes orbit each other and eventually merge. Often black holes have dormant periods in which they consume almost nothing. The consolidation process appears slow but persistent as the black holes merge with most everything that is sufficiently bound by gravity. Eventually, a dominant black hole singularity will emerge from mergers of the remaining blank holes in the galaxy cluster, and in some the cases, supercluster or supercluster complex. Thus, gravitation makes a black hole singularity from the matter and energy it consumes. It continues this until the remaining amount of the galaxy or galaxy cluster has insufficient gravitational attraction to prevent singularity space warp acceleration.

4. The black hole singularity acceleration era overlaps the previous era as dominant supermassive black holes will separate and break the bonds of gravity with the universe. The space warp of these massive black holes becomes many light years deep, as the force of dark energy increases and accelerates the singularity. As more dark energy flows into the warp, the pressure increase is analogous to that of higher pressure at greater water depths, except that the pressure driving the singularity may be ten to 10,000 light years deep. Almost all the dark energy that can possibly “flow” into each of these very large black holes will do so, resulting in most of the dark energy available in the universe being applied to singularity acceleration. The law of momentum conservation means that the singularity’s acceleration increases its mass. Thus, as dark energy is applied to the movement of the singularity, it effectively increases the size of both the singularity by three to six orders of magnitude. Small black holes will revive little dark energy and will either not form any universes or form only small or sterile ones.

5. The gravitational singularity conversion epoch occurs when the singularity reaches the speed of light, loses all gravitational attraction with and separates from its universe, becomes naked, and enters a phase transition. The laws of its previous universe are superseded by this phase transition to the big bang laws, which, in addition to causing a big bang, convert the gravitational force into a new universe and significantly increase total mass, as shown in the equation Mu= S2.C2. A plausible explanation may be that the explosive turbulence of the big bang causes a CP symmetry violation. A CP violation allows the matter to exist and antimatter to be annihilated when the two meet. These factors may also result in more mass being created than had originally existed in the black hole singularity before a big bang.

 

We are in the very early life cycle of our universe, so supermassive black holes at the center of each galaxy typically have only one percent of the mass of their galaxy. This example assumes for demonstration purposes that only one percent of the mass in the Bernice’s supercluster complex of recoverable mass is part of black holes now. Given as much as a thousand times longer than the universe has existed, black holes will grow by a factor of two by consuming most of the mass in their galaxies, as they simultaneously merge with the black holes in their galaxy, galaxy cluster, and cluster complex. All of this consolidation of the mass in the supercluster complex results in six orders of magnitude from the present size of 2 x 1039 kg. Figure 2 shows an approximate two orders of magnitude for each level moving from consolidation of the mass of a galaxy, cluster, and supercluster. In reality, the consolidation levels overlap considerably and vary immensely, depending on the galaxy clusters. For example, the eventual merger of Andromeda with the Milky Way will result in a much smaller dominant supermassive black hole than NGC 4889 and a relatively small universe. During this consolidation time, all other galaxies not associated with our cluster will lose gravitational attraction and disappear over the event horizon. [11]

 

The size of our universe is about 13 orders of magnitude larger than black hole NGC 4889. [47] Figure 2 summarizes the approximate and plausible growth in five overlapping phases of how it could become the size of our universe. It is also likely that even larger supermassive black holes exist in our universe and have not yet been discovered.

 

Object

Increase in

Orders of Magnitude

Resulting mass

Approximate mass multiplication of each step in the sequence allowing 1015  years after the Big Bang

Sun [48]

 

2 x 1030 kg

Present mass

Milky Way black hole [49]

 

8.5 × 1036 kg

Present mass

Andromeda Galaxy

 

2 x 1038 kg

Present mass

Black hole NGC 4889

 

2 x 1039 kg

Present mass - 21 billion suns

Combinable mass of NGC 4889 galaxy [50]

2

2 x 1041 kg

Black hole is .5% of its galaxy’s recoverable mass

Combinable mass of NGC 4889 galaxy, Coma Berenices galaxy cluster

2

2 x 1043 kg

Galaxy is .5% of its cluster’s recoverable mass

Consolidation of part of the Berenices galaxy supercluster complex

2

2 x 1045 kg

The galaxy cluster is .5% of the recoverable mass of its supercluster complex

Mass of the dark energy applied to the singularity

3

2 x 1048 kg

The acceleration caused by dark energy adds mass times 1000

Big bang mass multiplier Mu= S2.C2  less loss from an imperfect CP violation

4

2 x 1052 kg

Mass times 10,000 results in a universe slightly small than ours

Our universe [51]

 

6 x 1052 kg +?

 

 

Figure 2. A table of a hypothetical dominant supermassive black hole growth leading to universe-forming singularity

 

To demonstrate the application of the singularity acceleration model, a very rough calculation using the black hole at the center of NGC 4889 in the Coma constellation will provide an idea of the size of the universe that it will create. This black hole weighs about 21 billion suns. To expedite the calculation, I will make some assumptions. These approximations use the best available but inadequate information and could be off by several orders of magnitude. Allowing up to 1000 times its current age, Black Hole 4889 will consume most of its galaxy, which will multiply its size by 100, consume much of its galaxy cluster multiplying it by another factor of 100, and consume some of its supercluster complex, another factor of 100. An even less exact estimate of the force applied by dark energy to accelerate the singularity to the speed of light is 1,000, resulting in a total mass of 2 x 1048 kg. The final step applies the proposed big bang mass multiplier Mu= S2.C2, less the efficiency loss from an imperfect CP violation. Somewhat arbitrary, these estimates may offset each other and leave a multiplier of 10,000 and result in a universe weight of 2 x 1052 kg, which is modestly smaller than our universe. The confidence level of this estimate is very low, so the universe resulting from BH NGC 4889 could be a universe similar to, larger than, or many orders of magnitude smaller than our universe. It is also likely that even larger supermassive black holes exist in our universe but have not yet been discovered that could produce a larger universe.

 

Simultaneous universe expanding and combining components are essential to making more universes

All galaxies appear to have supermassive black holes at their center. Over hundreds of billions of years, much of the mass in galaxy clusters that successfully holds together against the dark energy-driven expansion will become part of dominant supermassive black holes. When galaxies with their black holes pass close enough to each other for the black holes to go into mutual orbit, they appear to be dancing. Their orbits are very elliptical and progress in a series of advancing elliptical orbits that disrupt stellar orbits, allowing many more stars to be swallowed by the black holes prior to their eventual merger. When galaxies collide, this occurrence usually results in the black holes at their center colliding in extraordinary events that culminate in building dominant supermassive black holes. Given sufficient time, this combination of both gradual and extraordinary rapid growth (heavy duty cycle) will result in black holes that are much larger than the supermassive black holes known to exist now. As the stars are widely dispersed, many black hole mergers are required for the majority of the galaxy cluster to become part of the dominant black hole. A very rough estimate of the time required for all black holes to have merged and to have consumed most of the other material in the galaxy cluster is 1012 to 1015 years from the Big Bang. The remaining small black holes, stars, dust, and gas not consumed by supermassive black holes will eventually degenerate over a very long time. [45]

 

Axiom 5. A simultaneously expanding universe and consolidating galaxy clusters are essential to making more universes.

 

A. Dark energy is causing the universe to expand, and the universe will continue do so [19] until the last of its components degenerate in as much as 10100 years, unless some of its components can separate from the universe. Galaxy clusters that do not remain gravitationally bound will be separated from each other so extensively by dark energy that they will disappear over the event horizon from one another. This phenomenon eliminates the possibility of a cyclical or bouncing universe in which the entire universe will collapse and consolidate as a unit leading to another big bang causing a single universe. [7]

 

B. Dark energy expands the universe, separating galaxy clusters. This expansion is driven by dark energy, which is essential for the formation of new universes, by reducing the gravitational force between galaxy clusters. This also effectively reduces the universe’s gravitational attraction with dominant supermassive black holes. In the late stages of dominant supermassive black hole development, dark energy provides the force to accelerate the singularity and contributes to its mass, as governed by the law of conservation of linear momentum.

 

C. Dark matter, constituting about 22 percent of the universe, is critical to providing sufficient gravitational attraction to form galaxies and to help keep galaxy clusters together long enough to allow the formation of dominant supermassive black holes. [20, 21, 22, 23] This offsets the dispersion effect of dark energy which will drive apart everything not sufficiently connected gravitationally. Dark matter could be weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPS), other dimensional, or something else. As long as it helps maintain gravitational attraction between galaxies in a cluster, its functioning is compatible with the singularity acceleration hypothesis. Both baryonic and dark matter appear to perform the same function of providing sufficient gravitational force  to hold galaxy clusters together, assisting dominant supermassive black holes attain enormous size. Why do they both occur? Would either baryonic or dark matter be sufficient in the universe formation process? There are at least five alternative but not necessarily mutually exclusive answers to why both are needed.

1.    Dark matter is important in disrupting the orbits of matter in galaxies, speeding the process of accretion of mass by black holes. [24]

2.    Dark matter is more efficient in the formation of galaxies, while baryonic matter is necessary to be the primary material of galaxies and black holes.

3.    Both forms may be efficient in capturing mass in different situations; however, both forms of matter are necessary for dominant supermassive black holes to capture sufficient mass.

4.    Both forms of matter are the result of a critical big bang universe formation process that must produce both for a universe to form.

5.    Baryonic matter is critical to the formation of black holes, and dark matter is critical to the structure or fabric of space. [23]

 

D. The process of an ongoing expansion of the universe, while galaxy clusters are simultaneously combining and isolating themselves from the remaining universe, is essential to making more universes. Much of the mass in galaxy clusters that successfully holds together against the dark energy-driven expansion will become part of dominant supermassive black holes at their center. Gravity attracts and usually holds the galaxy clusters together, and over time galaxies with their black holes pass close enough for the black holes to go into mutual orbit. [25] They also appear to be dancing, as their orbits are very elliptical and progress in a series of advancing elliptical orbits that disrupt stellar orbits, allowing many more stars to be swallowed by the black holes. [26] Black holes consume stars and gradually become more massive. Dark matter is essential to this process of building large black hole singularities, since it helps to hold galaxies and galaxy clusters together and may cause perturbation in stellar orbits. Dark matter also offsets the dispersion effect of dark energy, which will drive apart everything not sufficiently connected gravitationally. Galaxy collisions usually result in the black holes at their center colliding in extraordinary events that hasten the building process of dominant supermassive black holes. Given sufficient time, this combination of both gradual and extraordinarily rapid growth (heavy duty cycle) [25] will result in black holes that are much larger than the supermassive black holes known to exist now. As the stars are widely dispersed, many black hole mergers are required for the majority of the galaxy cluster to become part of the dominant black hole. A very rough estimate is 1013 to 1014 years after the Big Bang for the consolidation to be complete, and certainly by 1015 years, all dominant supermassive black holes will have merged and consumed most of the other material in the galaxy cluster. Any remaining small black holes, stars, dust, and gas will eventually degenerate. The longer estimate assumes that “dark matter contributes to no more than about 10% of the total accreted mass” [27] of the black hole. Thus, the consolidation process of dark matter is slower than that of baryonic matter, requiring a longer time span than would be needed for dominant supermassive black holes to consume the baryonic mass.

 

E. The function of dark energy transitions to a complement of gravity in the latter stage of singularity acceleration. Dark energy and gravity are opposing forces, with gravity attracting mass and making stars, black holes, and galaxies, while dark energy is pushing them apart. However, once dark energy has separated almost everything that is not bound by gravity in the galaxy, a dominant supermassive black hole, dark energy, and gravity will be the only significant factors remaining in the universe. They will effectively complement each other to accelerate the space warp of dominant supermassive black hole singularities. Dark energy remains repulsive in that it still pushes things apart, and in this case it continues to do so by pushing the dominant supermassive black holes out of the universe. In the process, the singularity’s primary source of mass is dark energy. Gravity is essentially doing the same thing as it attracts mass to the singularity, increasing its warp of space. The supermassive black hole serves as a catalyst for dark energy, which without a singularity would not be able to attach its mass to anything capable of separating from the universe.

 

Copyright 2012 - John M. Wilson

jmwgeo@gmail.com