Cosmological Evolution

The Theorized Descriptions, Rules, and Processes Governing

Universe Formation from Gravitationally Bound Structures

Universe Formation Home Page

8 November 2012


The theorized descriptions, rules, and processes of cosmological evolution necessary for a sequence or line of universes to continue producing new universes are listed below. This list was developed by applying the applicable components of biological evolution and physics to the singularity acceleration model of cosmology. If the singularity hypothesis is true, then the following is a plausible list of laws governing universe evolution.


If it is possible for a universe to form, it will; and if it is possible for universes to evolve systems to make more universes, they will. And, if it is possible for universes to evolve systems that become more reliable in producing more or larger universes, they will, given sufficient time. This law requires at least occasional variation to occur between succeeding universe generations. Mixing genes with a bi-sexual system is helpful in a biologic evolutionary system as life is competitive. In principle, there is no competition for space which is free to any newly formed universe; therefore, the universe formation system is not competitive and affected by the existence of other universes.

1.    There are many universes and many generations of universes.

2.    Universe evolution is a process that discovers which set of formation laws work best to produce more universes.

3.    Each new universe creates a new place, time, and physical laws for itself.

4.    If it is possible for a function to make a universe that is more reliable in producing more or larger universes, it will occur given sufficient time, up to the limit of perfect reliability and efficiency.

5.    Universe evolution is not intentional. Universes have no motivation, plan, goal, desire, or sense of accomplishment.

6.    Effective universe reproduction does the following:

a.    Constructs baryonic matter and dark matter in large super clusters that are consumed by black holes,

b.    Removes the gravitational influence between galaxy clusters,

c.    Develops the optimum ratios of all forms of matter and energy,

d.    Has an optimum high percentage of dark energy that makes very large black holes singularities that can warp space at the speed of light,

e.    And conforms to the laws of singularity acceleration with a phase transition with suspended laws of physics including a big bang.

7.    Each family of universes will continue to produce new universes provided that the changes that occur in each new universe generation are within the functional probability limits of reproduction occurring and that the universe the information necessary to make more universes.

8.    Increased efficiency in producing universes by a line of universes requires that there be at least an occasional variation in physical laws between succeeding universe generations. 

9.    Each family of universes must evolve a means to create at least an occasional universe containing more mass than did the prior one.

10. Once formed, universe evolution is not influenced by any other universes.

11. Universe production does not benefit from diversity branching since there are no specialty niches. There is only one environment in which universes exist, which essentially is nothing. Differential survival is not a factor in universe reproductive effectiveness, unlike biological evolution. Universes do not compete with each other for resources, whereas organisms do compete with one another for resources and mates. The only criterion for universe success is that the universe makes more universes.

12. Universes have no time constraints from outside factors. Therefore, they can take considerable time to reproduce, unlike in biological evolution where an organism (or group) must replicate itself as much and as often as possible within the parameters of its functionality.

13. Large universes, in principle, will produce multiple new universes, since large universes produce more supermassive black holes, statistically increasing the chance of reproductive success. Based on the equation Mu=S2.C2, the size of the resulting universes will be correlated with the size of the forming singularities, which means that sometimes, the resulting universe will be larger than the mother universe.

14. Each universe may produce anywhere from zero to millions of new universes. This formation process suggests that, over many generations of universe formation, an initial sequence of tiny universes formed, which eventually led to the formation of larger ones.

15. Large universes produce more large universes, since dark energy flows to the first and largest dominant supermassive black holes, depriving the later-forming and smaller black holes of enough dark energy to accelerate sufficiently to form a new universe.

16. Universes have life expectancies directly correlated with their total mass, and all end eventually, with incomplete records of existence except for the information contained in the daughter universes. This is a lengthy process, as in our case, as much as 10100 years.

17. The changes that occur in each new universe generation will usually be small. [13, 42] It does not necessarily take the most efficient path to achieve each universe, only that the sequence works at each step. Other information may or may not be carried forward, which means that information is lost between universe generations.

18. Universes may or may not reproduce. Universes with laws of physics that are outside the effective bounds of reproductive functionality will not effectively reproduce.

19. Some black hole singularities will fail to cause a big bang or fail to consolidate with a black hole that does. Relative mass of a singularity to the galaxy cluster and access to dark energy are the main factors in the singularity’s chance of successfully creating new a universe.

20. The next generation of some universes may be less massive than the parent universe.

21. A perfectly efficient universe that used all of its mass in the creation of one or more additional universes is not possible.

22. Gravitation will likely be the only means possible to measure inter-universe contact. Energy, mass, and information cannot be detected between universes except in rare instances of gravitational contact.

23. When a singularity separates from its universe, the laws for the parent universe no longer apply. Inflation occurs during the very early short period of the new universe as it expands at a speed greater than the speed of light. One of the first laws of the new universe is the light speed limit. Any new universe that does not set this limit will not make any more universes.

24. All universes will have some laws and components that are identical in every universe. Examples of such laws are the speed of light, the four forces, such components as baryonic and dark matter and dark energy, and certain critical ratios. [41] Some other ratios will vary.


3.9 Ineffective universe formation factors

Each universe generation copies its laws from its parent universe; however, some variation between universes will occur as that is the nature of any evolutionary system. This variation is necessary for the discovery of better working systems. [42] However, failure results when a universe has laws that result in no or dysfunctional black holes or other components. The process of finding better methods of making universes results in some failures.


The singularity acceleration universe formation process will strongly favor universes with physical laws that make very large black hole singularities. Any universe that has formed physical laws that are less effective in creating black hole singularities will produce fewer universes or none at all. Thus, a nonproductive universe line will eventually become extinct as its universes degenerate. Over many generations, universes will coalesce around certain laws and processes that are effective in making more universes. Only a few black hole singularities will make large universes. Most black holes do not cause big bangs, and not all universes are successful in making more universes. Below are potential factors that contribute to universe reproductive failure.

1.    Entropy in the universe is too even, resulting in no or fewer and smaller black holes and fewer black hole mergers.

2.    Universes with less effective ratios of dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter will have fewer large black holes.

3.    Chance is a factor which will result in some small universes failing even when all the laws are within functional parameters. If most galaxy clusters do not lead to the formation of new universes or lead only to universes smaller than the galaxy cluster, then the chances of a universe with only a few galaxy clusters not producing a universe are greater than those of a universe with millions of galaxies.

4.    Micro and other small universes may be more prone to reproductive failure than are large universes, since the chance of a small universe’s few singularities not producing a universe is much greater than that of all of the singularities in a large universe failing to make a universe.

5.    If supermassive black hole reaches stability with its galaxy and has insufficient mass due to insufficient dark matter or the presence of other galaxies to disturb the orbits of stars and other matter in it, then it may not separate from its universe and make a universe. The result will be that the galaxy and its black hole will degenerate [28] rather than form a new universe. The singularity will have insufficient acceleration to separate from its universe and will be unable to cause a big bang.


Axiom 8. Cosmological evolution - If it is possible for a universe to form, it will; and if it is possible for universes to evolve processes that form more universes, they will. [39]


A. There are many universes and many generations of universes. [40]

The process of making a large universe such as ours requires many intermediate universes, some of which produced black hole singularities that made larger universes or formed with new laws of physics that resulted in more efficient universe formation in succeeding generations.


B. If it is possible for universes to evolve systems that produce universes, with laws of physics most likely to produce more and larger universes more efficiently and more reliably, they will, given enough universe generations.


Over many generations universes will coalesce around certain laws and processes that are effective and efficient in making more universes. This Axiom requires there be at least occasional variation between succeeding generations. Any universe with less effective formation laws produces few or no universes. For example, if a universe had little dark energy, the black hole singularities would not reach the speed necessary to separate from their universe. Martin Rees makes a convincing case for six fundamental numbers describing certain ratios and laws necessary for a universe like ours to form. [41] This concept of universe evolution has been proposed before. One advocate is theoretical physicist Lee Smolin, who makes a convincing case for natural selection in determining the formation of universes. [42]


C. The chance that a dominant supermassive black hole will form a universe increases with its mass and the availability of dark energy. Ultra large supermassive black holes result in the formation of very large universes that will make more large universes along with some small universes, as shown in the equation Mu= S2.C2. In universes dark energy flows to the largest black holes, which will result in the formation of large universes and few, if any, small ones. The larger the universe, the less likely it is to fail to produce more universes.


D. Failure rate of black holes forming universes is inversely related to the mass of the black hole relative to the universe. As many things can fail in universe creation, the likelihood of complete failure is reduced when a universe produces a significant number of very large supermassive black holes that are most likely to successfully produce more universes.


E. Under normal galaxy cluster consolidation, only one dominant supermassive black hole singularity will form one universe per galaxy cluster that is bound gravitationally.


F. The number of new universes formed from a universe may be any number from zero to very large. The limiting factors controlling the number of new universes are mass, entropy, and efficiency in forming dominant supermassive black holes of the parent universe.


G. The information needed to make a universe is the only information that must be retained by the next generation of universes. Some general statistical information of the black hole singularity that formed the universe may be retained. The most plausible location for this information is in the singularity on the sub quantum level such as one-dimensional strings.


All other information could eventually be lost when the universe degeneration is complete. [38] A specific knowledge of prior universes may be lost; this is analogous to the role DNA plays in the generation of new life. Some schools of physics maintain that all information is retained forever because the laws of physics would not work if information is lost. While the concern is valid, it is based on the premise that there is no other way for information to be carried except by the law of conservation of information. The singularity acceleration model maintains that sufficient information to make more universes can be carried forward with the singularity, and no other information is needed. Specific information is lost in each generation of universe formation, and all specific information of each universe is eventually lost except for the legacy of physical law that formed the next universe generation. This premise is based on Axiom 2A, “Nothing in nature forms and survives very long with significant superfluous components.”


H. The residual parts of all universes degenerate. All mass in the universe has two possible outcomes: either it becomes part of a dominant supermassive black hole and participates in the formation of a new universe, or it degenerates into nothing as described by Hawking radiation, proton decay, and other forms of degeneration. [44]


Copyright © 2012 - John M. Wilson