Conclusions About Natural Law Governing Universe Formation

Universe Formation from Gravitationally Bound Structures

 

Acceleration of Dominant Supermassive Black Hole Singularities

Serving as the Catalyst of Dark Energy in the Formation of Universes

Universe Formation Home Page

7 November 2012

 

Conclusion

Universes exist on scales so removed from human experience that even the information from the most technologically advanced instrumentation is inadequate to determine the complete nature of reality. Working within this limitation, the singularity acceleration hypothesis uses functional processes to describe the workings of universe components before many of these components are completely understood.

 

Baryonic matter, energy, dark matter, dark energy, and the four forces all have critical functions and optimum ratios in the formation of universes as posited by the singularity acceleration hypothesis. Baryonic matter and energy cause matter to form stars, black holes, and galaxies. Black holes function to start and build galaxies. Dark matter functions to increase gravitational attraction of galaxies, thereby increasing entropy by concentrating mass in galaxies, galaxy clusters, and regions. This allows supermassive black holes to become the dominant article in their galaxy cluster or larger region. Supermassive black holes merge and eventually consume most of the mass of their region of space, leading to the formation of dominant supermassive black holes. Dark energy divides the universe into galaxy clusters that separate from each other and speed over the event horizon, becoming invisible to each other. Dominant supermassive black hole singularities use gravity to store energy gathered by consuming much of everything in their galaxy cluster through accretion and merging with galaxies and other black holes over many hundreds of billions of years. In the late stage of dominant supermassive black hole development, the gravitational attraction between the singularity and its galaxy decreases as its mass increases due to the increasing distance, i.e. depth, of the black hole and the decreasing mass of the galaxy.

 

Singularity acceleration posits that under certain conditions, dominant supermassive black hole singularities, propelled by gravity and then by dark energy, bends space. The singularity’s warp of space continues and accelerates with the addition of mass by accretion and by galaxy and black hole mergers over hundreds of billions of years. Dark energy functions to expand the entire universe and continues the expansion in the latter stage primarily by accelerating black hole singularities. Dark energy mass becomes a major component of the next generation of universes. Dark energy is always repulsive, but its function transitions to a complement of gravity in the latter stage of singularity acceleration according the singularity acceleration hypothesis.

 

The inflation era is part of a phase transition in which a singularity breaks its gravitational bonds with and separates from its universe. This is the most significant event in universe formation. It is presently known as the inflation era in which the early universe expansion rate exceeds the speed of light; however, there is much more. The laws of the universe end, causing a naked singularity and gravitation to be suspended, resulting in a big bang and a net gain in mass by the new universe, described by the equation Mu=S2.C2. A set of physical laws are established by the newly forming universe that may or may not be identical to those of the previous universe.

 

The basic premise of the singularity acceleration hypothesis is that a dominant supermassive black hole singularity will function as a catalyst for dark energy, causing the singularity to be accelerated and warp space at the speed of light, thereby separating from its universe and causing a big bang. Thus, dominant supermassive black hole singularities provide most of the mass for a new universe. The mass of dark energy is added to the mass of the black hole singularities as it propels the space warp acceleration of a singularity, based on the law of momentum conservation.

 

If the singularity acceleration hypothesis accurately describes the formation of the universe, then numerous implications exist for cosmology. At a minimum, the creation of new universes from our universe is, in principle, predictable in time, approximate relative location, and total number.

 

The functional gravitation unification cycle with the other forces is demonstrated as black hole singularities consume everything from baryonic and dark matter to energy and eventually the mass of dark energy, all of which are converted to gravitation in the singularity. A black hole singularity is fundamentally concentrated gravity. The phase transition between the old and new universes suspends physical laws, including gravitation causing the big bang in which everything is converted to various forms of matter and energy in a new universe. Over eons black hole singularities consume everything in the next cycle.

 

There are many universes, and the evolution of universes is analogous to a series of never-ending branches. These branches progress through seven unending phases of a big bang, expansion, dispersion, isolations, consolidations, acceleration, separations, and big bangs, as opposed to a circular model or a series of only expansions and contractions. The physical laws of the parent universe and the new universe may or may not be the same. Information is lost between the two universes. The occasional variations in physical laws between universe generations evolve to make a slightly more efficient replicating universe. Singularities bend space at the speed of light and burst from old universes to form new universes, creating their own new time and space, independent and invisible to any other universe. With no information shared after the creation of its big bang, each universe is adrift in its own space and time. An observer in one universe will never know for certain the specific nature of sibling or predecessor universes. The future of some of the mass of a universe that becomes part of its most massive black holes is to produce more universes, and everything else in the universe will degenerate into nothing over an exceedingly long time. All mass in the universe has two possible outcomes: it either becomes part of a dominant supermassive black hole, which forms a new universe, or it degenerates into nothing.

 

With the exception of the first few generations, all successful generations of universes would have used methods that functioned within a working range of the laws that form universes by singularity acceleration. Each subsequent universe refines the methods and increases its success rate by making larger black holes and producing more efficient combinations of physical laws. Since the potential space for new universes is infinite, universes do not compete. There is no elimination of less effective universes other than elimination by failure to reproduce and by degeneration of a universe. It is plausible that many universes exist simultaneously in different places. This universe formation process will strongly favor universes with physical laws that make very large black hole singularities and universes. The singularity acceleration model proposes an apparently endless cycle from smooth entropy at the big bang to extreme entropy of galaxy clusters, leading to dominant supermassive black holes that are used by self-replicating universes to produce new universes.

 

As often happens when one question is answered, many more questions arise. This hypothesis provides several interesting areas for research, experimentation, and development of mathematical models. These hypotheses need mathematical descriptions to verify and further demonstrate their usefulness. This publication should stimulate interest among mathematicians and physicists with resources to build the appropriate mathematical models.

 

Components of singularity acceleration could remain a hypothesis, at least until the following concepts can be explained further and mathematical models are presented.

Ø  Describe the phase transition of singularities during separation from the universe and acceleration driven by dark energy.

Ø  Develop a model explaining the unification of gravitation with all other forces when they transition from the mass of matter, energy, dark matter, and dark energy to gravitational force in black hole singularity acceleration.

Ø  Describe the phase transition of a gravitational singularity as it equals the speed of light, producing a big bang, and with the resulting universe having more mass than did the singularity. In the equation S2.C2 = Mu, S is the gravitation singularity, C is the speed of light, and Mu is the mass of the new universe.

Ø  Describe the CP violation during the big bang.

Ø  Produce a model of the first micro universe formed when subatomic particles or strings formed spontaneously and sufficiently concentrated space to make a micro black hole.

Ø  Produce a model of the evolution of universes demonstrating that the laws of physics evolve to produce more large universes.

Ø  Produce a model of the amount of mass remaining in an isolated galaxy cluster after a singularity separation occurs to determine if another dominant supermassive black hole can form, accelerate, and separate from the same cluster to make another universe.

 

Copyright © 2012 - John M. Wilson

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