Axiom 6

Dominant Supermassive Black Hole Singularities

Can Bend Space at the Speed of Light.

Singularity Acceleration Axioms and Principles Governing Universe Formation

Universe Formation Home Page

7 November 2012

 

Axiom 6. Dominant Supermassive black hole singularities can bend space at the speed of light.

Black hole singularities accelerate as their mass increases relative to the combined mass of the galaxies that are gravitationally bound to them. The weaker the gravitational attraction between the singularity and the galaxy, the more effectively dark energy can be in pushing the singularity and warping space at an accelerated rate.

 

A. Mass warps space and extraordinarily massive black holes force extreme warps that, under certain conditions, reach the speed of light and lead to singularity acceleration and eventual separation from the universe.

As the black hole gains mass, two important things occur. First, it compresses all of its matter and energy into a singularity that moves by stretching or warping space. Mass bends or warps space, and the more massive an object, the more space bends. [28] Secondly, a black hole singularity’s mass breaks the equilibrium between it and the constraining gravitational forces of its galaxy, causing it to increasingly warp space and move farther away from its galaxy, reducing their mutual attraction.

This hypothesis maintains that massive objects warp space in measurable distances. For example, set the position in space of a star at a hypothetical point A, with relativity turned off. Then, turn on relativity and the star will be at point B, which is some distance from point A. The difference between these two points is real but can only be seen indirectly by an observer in three-dimensional space. If the mass of the star is increased, the length of this line increases and the object is now at point C. The distance between B and C is real and can also be measured. With black hole singularities, the distance can be quite significant, and as black holes absorb other black holes, stars, and other objects, the singularity moves farther along this line. Its distance is related to its mass and that of the galaxy and cluster.

 

B. Dark energy accelerates the space warp of dominant supermassive black hole singularities to the speed of light.

Over eons, as dark energy expands the universe, thereby decreasing the effective gravitational attraction between the universe and its galaxy clusters, and when singularities achieve sufficient mass relative to any surrounding galaxy, the rate at which they will accelerate in a space warp increases. Dominant supermassive black holes that have consumed most of their galaxy, galaxy cluster, and supercluster have exceptionally large black holes which allow more force to be applied by dark energy, increasing the singularity acceleration. The gravitational attraction between the singularity and its galaxy decreases as the galaxy loses mass to the black hole. The singularity’s acceleration is assisted by dark energy in the same way it is causing the universe to expand and accelerate.

 

The largest and first dominant supermassive black hole singularities to form in a galaxy cluster will receive almost all of dark energy available in the cluster. Dominant supermassive black holes formed later will be smaller, will receive relatively proportionally less dark energy, and may not receive enough energy to escape the universe.

 

Dark energy propels the singularity in a space warp, in effect, increasing its mass. According to the law of momentum conservation, the mass of the singularity depends on its speed. Thus, as dark energy is applied to the movement of the singularity, it effectively increases the mass of both the singularity and the new universe it will form. Based on Einstein’s equation, if an object at rest has a mass M, moving at a speed v it will have mass m = mo / [1-(v/c)2] ˝. When v and c are nearly equal, mass becomes very large. The equation applies to universe formation; therefore, when the singularity separates from the universe as its gravitational attraction becomes zero, a phase transition occurs and all of the dark energy is converted to the mass of the singularity. This equation states that when v = c, the mass becomes infinite. Since we know that cannot happen, it is reasonable to assume that this law is suspended during the phase transition.

 

C. The structure or fabric of space-time, referred to as the stress-energy tensor, has a mass and energy equivalent and can functionally be treated mathematically as a force and be measured by gravity. [29, 30] “In general relativity, gravity can be regarded as not a force but a consequence of a curved spacetime geometry where the source of curvature is the stress-energy tensor [representing matter, for instance].” [31]

 

There are three concepts that are plausible for describing gravitation and modeling singularity movement: general relativity, M-theory, and dark matter dimension. Any of these theories are compatible with the singularity acceleration hypothesis; however, for purposes of simplicity the dimension in which black hole singularities move will be referred to as a space warp. Resolving which theory provides the best model requires information not available; however, working constructs are plausible with each of these theories of dimensional space. General relativity space-time provides an adequate model to explain the movement of black hole singularities. M-theory and string theory have the theoretical flexibility to accommodate singularity acceleration. Dark matter and dark energy may exist in different dimensions than do matter and energy but have gravity in common with them. The acceleration of black hole singularities can also be modeled in multi-dimensional systems.

 

Copyright © 2012 - John M. Wilson

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