Axiom 5

Simultaneous universe expansion and galaxy cluster consolidation

are essential to making more universes

Singularity Acceleration Axioms and Principles Governing Universe Formation

Universe Formation Home Page

7 November 2012


Axiom 5. A simultaneously expanding universe and consolidating galaxy clusters are essential to making more universes.


A. Dark energy is causing the universe to expand, and the universe will continue do so [19] until the last of its components degenerate in as much as 10100 years, unless some of its components can separate from the universe. Galaxy clusters that do not remain gravitationally bound will be separated from each other so extensively by dark energy that they will disappear over the event horizon from one another. This phenomenon eliminates the possibility of a cyclical or bouncing universe in which the entire universe will collapse and consolidate as a unit leading to another big bang causing a single universe. [7]


B. Dark energy expands the universe, separating galaxy clusters. This expansion is driven by dark energy, which is essential for the formation of new universes, by reducing the gravitational force between galaxy clusters. This also effectively reduces the universe’s gravitational attraction with dominant supermassive black holes. In the late stages of dominant supermassive black hole development, dark energy provides the force to accelerate the singularity and contributes to its mass, as governed by the law of conservation of linear momentum.


C. Dark matter, constituting about 22 percent of the universe, is critical to providing sufficient gravitational attraction to form galaxies and to help keep galaxy clusters together long enough to allow the formation of dominant supermassive black holes. [20, 21, 22, 23] This offsets the dispersion effect of dark energy which will drive apart everything not sufficiently connected gravitationally. Dark matter could be weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPS), other dimensional, or something else. As long as it helps maintain gravitational attraction between galaxies in a cluster, its functioning is compatible with the singularity acceleration hypothesis. Both baryonic and dark matter appear to perform the same function of providing sufficient gravitational force  to hold galaxy clusters together, assisting dominant supermassive black holes attain enormous size. Why do they both occur? Would either baryonic or dark matter be sufficient in the universe formation process? There are at least five alternative but not necessarily mutually exclusive answers to why both are needed.

1.    Dark matter is important in disrupting the orbits of matter in galaxies, speeding the process of accretion of mass by black holes. [24]

2.    Dark matter is more efficient in the formation of galaxies, while baryonic matter is necessary to be the primary material of galaxies and black holes.

3.    Both forms may be efficient in capturing mass in different situations; however, both forms of matter are necessary for dominant supermassive black holes to capture sufficient mass.

4.    Both forms of matter are the result of a critical big bang universe formation process that must produce both for a universe to form.

5.    Baryonic matter is critical to the formation of black holes, and dark matter is critical to the structure or fabric of space. [23]


D. The process of an ongoing expansion of the universe, while galaxy clusters are simultaneously combining and isolating themselves from the remaining universe, is essential to making more universes. Much of the mass in galaxy clusters that successfully holds together against the dark energy-driven expansion will become part of dominant supermassive black holes at their center. Gravity attracts and usually holds the galaxy clusters together, and over time galaxies with their black holes pass close enough for the black holes to go into mutual orbit. [25] They also appear to be dancing, as their orbits are very elliptical and progress in a series of advancing elliptical orbits that disrupt stellar orbits, allowing many more stars to be swallowed by the black holes. [26] Black holes consume stars and gradually become more massive. Dark matter is essential to this process of building large black hole singularities, since it helps to hold galaxies and galaxy clusters together and may cause perturbation in stellar orbits. Dark matter also offsets the dispersion effect of dark energy, which will drive apart everything not sufficiently connected gravitationally. Galaxy collisions usually result in the black holes at their center colliding in extraordinary events that hasten the building process of dominant supermassive black holes. Given sufficient time, this combination of both gradual and extraordinarily rapid growth (heavy duty cycle) [25] will result in black holes that are much larger than the supermassive black holes known to exist now. As the stars are widely dispersed, many black hole mergers are required for the majority of the galaxy cluster to become part of the dominant black hole. A very rough estimate is 1013 to 1014 years after the Big Bang for the consolidation to be complete, and certainly by 1015 years, all dominant supermassive black holes will have merged and consumed most of the other material in the galaxy cluster. Any remaining small black holes, stars, dust, and gas will eventually degenerate. The longer estimate assumes that “dark matter contributes to no more than about 10% of the total accreted mass” [27] of the black hole. Thus, the consolidation process of dark matter is slower than that of baryonic matter, requiring a longer time span than would be needed for dominant supermassive black holes to consume the baryonic mass.


E. The function of dark energy transitions to a complement of gravity in the latter stage of singularity acceleration. Dark energy and gravity are opposing forces, with gravity attracting mass and making stars, black holes, and galaxies, while dark energy is pushing them apart. However, once dark energy has separated almost everything that is not bound by gravity in the galaxy, a dominant supermassive black hole, dark energy, and gravity will be the only significant factors remaining in the universe. They will effectively complement each other to accelerate the space warp of dominant supermassive black hole singularities. Dark energy remains repulsive in that it still pushes things apart, and in this case it continues to do so by pushing the dominant supermassive black holes out of the universe. In the process, the singularity’s primary source of mass is dark energy. Gravity is essentially doing the same thing as it attracts mass to the singularity, increasing its warp of space. The supermassive black hole serves as a catalyst for dark energy, which without a singularity would not be able to attach its mass to anything capable of separating from the universe.


Copyright © 2012 - John M. Wilson