Axiom 3

Gravity and Black Holes Singularities Are Unique In Their Energy Storing Ability

Singularity Acceleration Axioms and Principles Governing Universe Formation

Universe Formation Home Page

7 November 2012


Axiom 3. Gravity and black holes singularities are unique in their ability to concentrate and store large amounts of energy for very long periods of time.


A. Gravity is the only force that could store the energy required for big bangs, and it is the only force of the four known forces that can sufficiently concentrate energy, since it works over infinite distances and does not disperse energy as does the electromagnetic force. [16, 17]


Gravitation is by far the weakest of the four interactions by many orders of magnitude; however, since it has infinite range and it always attracts, it can concentrate energy in very small amounts of space and, for all practical purposes, store it indefinitely. The other three forces can be eliminated as candidates to cause big bangs for various reasons. The strong force disperses energy when it is concentrated in a star and disperses it faster the more massive the star. The strong force and the weak force have limited range and have limits to their ability to concentrate and store large amounts of energy. Electrostatic attraction is not effective on the stellar or galaxy level, as it has both positive and negative charge, which means that it has a net attraction of zero.


B. Black hole singularities are the only known entities that could store in a small space the force necessary to cause a big bang.

Black hole singularities are the most effective means known to concentrate force that can cause a big bang. Since the universe will expand indefinitely, dispersing its galaxy clusters, it cannot form a universe from its entire body; the next largest sources of mass available for creating a new universe are black hole singularities, which have the most concentrated energy of any known object in the universe. Black hole singularities use gravitation to accumulate and concentrate energy as more mass is added. Gravity can store energy indefinitely in enormous quantities, and it overwhelms all other forces when concentrated. This possibility has been suggested before and rejected, as even the very largest black hole singularities are many orders of magnitude short of the mass necessary to cause a big bang. A plausible explanation of how a few singularities of dominant supermassive black holes acquire and apply sufficient mass is presented in a later section.


Thus, by applying the process of elimination to the first three sets of laws, we deduce that gravity acquires and stores the massive energy acting through black hole singularities to be the only known phenomenon that could cause a big bang.


Copyright 2012 - John M. Wilson