Why “Before the Big Bang” questions are posted on ResearchGate

Universe Formation Home Page

3 January 2013


Several people have commented that posing the question about cosmic fluctuations is not answerable using scientific methodology, and therefore should not have been asked in research gate. These people may be underestimating the potential discovery power of cumulative knowledge achieved through a series of many small gains. This method is often referred to as trial and error. Before a discovery, some problems seem insurmountable; but after a discovery the common expression is “Why didn’t I think of that.” It may be tedious at times; however, as an analogy from my many years of cave exploration have demonstrated, checking all leads, even unpromising ones, is necessary to find the interesting passages and to reach major discoveries.


In the quest to understand the Big Bang, the three most relevant disciplines have all experienced rapid scientific progress in recent years. They are quantum physics, M theory, and astrophysics. Each could lead to a plausible explanation of the cause of the Big Bang. Here I give examples of proposals for the cause of the Big Bang that could be discovered by scientist working in each specialty discipline.


1. As the knowledge base in quantum mechanics continues to grow it may be possible to either confirm or falsify quantum fluctuations as the cause of the Big Bang. It is my understanding that proponents such as Lawrence Krauss and others maintain that the uncertainly principle applies everywhere including outside of our universe and presumably outside all universes. Therefore, as quantum articles go in and out of existence and under very rare conditions they form a massive quantum article outside a universe that causes a big bang to form a new universe. This concept complicates the meaning of “universe” which brings up a different problem for later discussion. Other related quantum mechanics models are Loop quantum cosmology and Penrose's Conformal Cyclic Cosmology.

2. M theory (string theory) presents models such as M-Brane collisions (Steinhardt–Turok or Baum–Frampton) or other interactions among prior universes as the cause of the Big Bang.

3. Astrophysics and the advances in accurately measuring the cosmos have substantially influenced cosmology. This information has falsified many cosmological models, the most famous being the Steady State theory. The Big Crunch in which the entire universe collapses into a giant blank hole and then explodes into another universe has also been falsified. Astrophysics has given us an entirely new prospective with the discovery that dark energy is driving the expansion of the universe and separating everything that is not gravitationally bound. This means that the galaxies in most galaxy clusters will merge forming giant galaxies that will eventually be isolated over the event horizon from each other and the remaining universe. (Kentaro Nagamine and Abraham Loeb, 2002) Although our entire universe will not consolidate to form a new universe, the possibility that part of it might do so has not been eliminated. This idea states that the gravitationally bound galaxies in a cluster will consolidate into a single galaxy with an ultra supermassive black hole at its center and by some undiscovered process form a new universe. It would be interesting if someone would run a computer simulation to determine what will happen to these giant galaxies in the next several hundred billion years. If it is plausible that a very large galaxy in our universe could cause a future big bang then one might generalize that this is the method that caused the Big Bang.

4. Confluence of these disciplines could result in some other proposal not yet conceived.

John M. Wilson