Time, Information, and Unification

Singularity Acceleration Implications for Three Contentious Issues in Physics

Time Is Real, Information Can Be Lost, and Gravity Creates the Other Forces

7 November 2012

Time Is Real

Time is required to have a sequence of events and the formation Singularity Acceleration universe formation model is based on numerous sequences such as the seven phases of each branch of universe formation, a Big Bang Phase Transition sequence, and sequence summary of universe formation from nothing to the future.

Axiom 4. Potential space and time are infinite

A. The potential space in which universes may form is infinite. Alternatively, this concept is expressed as the fact that new space is created with the formation of new universes and can never be exhausted by the formation of additional new universes.

Potential space or places where matter and energy could exist is infinite. The singularity acceleration hypothesis requires that potential space is infinite and posits that new space is regularly being created from nothing by newly formed universes. A new universe will always be able to form, as it creates its own space.

B. The potential time in which the process of universe creation could have functioned is infinite.

Time exists when there is some event. Potential time is infinite, and when the first event occurred, measurable time started. The formation and destruction of universes will continue indefinitely.

Time for each universe starts with its formation. Within its space and time, there is no recoverable record of the time previous to its formation.

C. Potential space is nothing. [18] Prior to a new universe forming, there is nothing; this is not to be confused with a vacuum. Vacuums occur in space that has dimensions and gravity and through which light can travel. In potential space there is no gravity, matter, light, energy, fabric of space, or dimensions, so there is no place in potential space from which an observer can look out and see universes or anything else. However, this Axiom does not rule out the possibility that the uncertainty principle applies in potential space.

D. The uncertainty principle is true everywhere. The uncertainly principle allows subatomic virtual particles with net zero energy to briefly pop in and out of existence. Quantum mechanics substantiates the uncertainty principle as it applies within our universe. The uncertainty principle is also assumed to function in empty space that is not part of a universe. [18]

Information is lost when a universe ends as information transfer between universes is limited.

Information loss associated with universe formation

There are six definitions or degrees of information loss of interest to physics. In terms of their importance in forming universes, the “universe formation information retention principle” posits that only information that is needed is essential and will not be lost between universes. The singularity acceleration hypothesis implies that the other five degrees of information loss could all be accurate and indicate that universes function with some information loss. These several definitions of information loss may contradict conventions held by some physicists. [53, 54]

Ř  Absolute information loss

Based on Law 8 – “All mass in the universe has two possible outcomes. It either becomes part of a dominant supermassive black hole, which is part of the formation of a new universe, or it degenerates into nothing.”  If this is true, then it is likely that the information degenerates with the remnants of the universe or is mostly lost in the big bang. However, this concept is probably not testable, so less restrictive criteria levels are proposed.

Ř  Economic information loss

Information is effectively lost from a system if the cost or energy required to retrieve it exceeds all of the wealth or energy available in the system, less the cost of the efficiency of the information retrieval system. For example, if all of the energy in the universe could be directed in the most efficient method to recover all the information that went into a black hole, and the effort succeeded in recovering it all, then one could conclude that no information was lost by this definition. If this method did not recover all information, then information is lost by this definition.

Ř  Economics of effective information loss

Economic information loss has a corollary, which is that information is effectively lost from a system if the energy or cost required to retrieve it exceeds the energy or wealth reasonably available to be used in its recovery.

Ř  Functional information loss

Information is lost if it will never have any effect on anything and could never have had any effect on anything. If the film of information as described by Hawking [54] exists like a halo around the universe and if it can survive the complete degeneration of the universe on some level of such a one-dimensional string, it may not be lost. However, information in this form is irrelevant since it will have no effect on anything.

Ř  Information loss between universes

Most information cannot be transferred between universes, as they do not exist in the same time and place and have no means with which to share information. With the exception of gravitation, universes would not have any effect on one another even if they did overlap in time and space. A big bang phase transition acts as a barrier between the parent and the new universe for most information.

Ř  Universe formation information retention

Each new universe that successfully reproduces must be functional and carry the information necessary to make more universes. Only information needed to make the universe is assured to be conveyed. Other information may or may not be carried forward, which means that information is lost between universe generations. It is likely that all specific information about an object or event in the parent universe is lost to the new universe. The information that is carried forward as part of the new universe is the only information that is never lost and is not irrelevant. Axiom set 2A states that “nothing in nature forms and survives very long with significant superfluous components.” Successfully reproducing universes have no advantage to evolve a system to retain unnecessary and certainly not all information about everything and every event that ever occurred in the universe.

Unification of Gravitation With the Four Forces

Functional unification of the four forces

The singularity acceleration hypothesis posits that gravitation is functionally unified with all other forces in a singularity. A dominant supermassive black hole consumes much of everything in its galaxy and its cluster; nothing is exempt, and dark matter, baryonic mater, and even dark energy are co-opted in building massive singularities. All forms of mass become part of the singularity and adopt its fundamental nature which is gravitation. That is, a singularity is all energy in the form of gravitation and could be referred to as a gravity singularity. It should be noted that general relativity does not consider gravitation a force but a warping of space-time; however, it functions as if it is a force for the purposes of this analysis.

These singularities cause a big bang as they warp space at the speed of light and separate from their universe. Big bangs occur when a singularity is no longer governed by laws of its previous universe resulting in a gravitational disruption of a singularity allowing the energy to be released. After a big bang, what was a singularity is converted to various forms of matter and energy in a new universe.

Cosmological process analysis is used to develop the singularity acceleration hypothesis which is based on nine universe formation axioms. The resulting theorem explains the mechanism by which dominant supermassive black hole singularities form and capture all forms of mater and energy. Supermassive singularity separation from the universe results in a big bang phase transition in which the laws of the previous universe are suspended. This results in the loss of gravitational attraction causing a big bang and inflation. The cyclic process is analogous to a branching universe with each having the following seven phases that reoccur in each daughter universe:

1. A phase transition big bang that forms a new universe

2. Expansion of the new universe and its structure

3. Dispersion of its mass and increasing entropy

4. Isolation of its galaxy clusters and supercluster complexes beyond event horizons

5. Many separate consolidations of all forms of matter, forces, and energy within these supercluster complexes into dominant supermassive black hole gravitational singularities

6. The resulting acceleration of singularities warping space to the speed of light

7. The independent separation of each of these singularities from the universe causing a big bang phase transition and producing all forms of matter, forces, and energy in a new universe.

This sequence explains a functional unification of gravity with the other three forces.

Copyright 2012 - John M. Wilson