Descriptions of Scientifically Based Hypothesized Universes

Universe Formation Home Page


Go to the table of alternative universes which has details of each proposal.


The universe formation descriptions on this page are from text mostly written by the author listed and copied from Wikipedia or other publications. Minor editing was done in some cases. 


Singularity Acceleration

Acceleration of Dominant Supermassive Black Hole Singularities Serving as the Catalyst of Dark Energy in the Formation of Universes

Cosmological process analysis is used to develop the singularity acceleration hypothesis which is based on nine universe formation axioms. The resulting theorem explains the mechanism by which dominant supermassive black hole singularities form and capture all forms of mater and energy. Supermassive singularity separation from the universe results in a big bang phase transition in which the laws of the previous universe are suspended. This results in the loss of gravitational attraction causing a big bang and inflation. The cyclic process is analogous to a branching universe with each having the following seven phases that reoccur in each daughter universe:

1. A phase transition big bang that forms a new universe

2. Expansion of the new universe and its structure

3. Dispersion of its mass and increasing entropy

4. Isolation of its galaxy clusters and supercluster complexes beyond event horizons

5. Many separate consolidations of all forms of matter, forces, and energy within these supercluster complexes into dominant supermassive black hole gravitational singularities

6. The resulting acceleration of singularities warping space to the speed of light

7. The independent separation of each of these singularities from the universe causing a big bang phase transition and producing all forms of matter, forces, and energy in a new universe.

John M. Wilson


Conformal Cyclic Cosmology

Universes are a sequence of sectors calls aeons.

“CCC is to connect a countable sequence of open Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric spacetimes, each representing a big bang followed by an infinite future expansion. Penrose noticed that the past conformal boundary of one copy of FLRW spacetime can be "attached" to the future conformal boundary of another, after an appropriate conformal rescaling. In particular, each individual FLRW metric is multiplied by the square of a conformal factor that approaches zero at timelike infinity, effectively "squashing down" the future conformal boundary to a conformally regular hypersurface (which is space like if there is a positive cosmological constant). The result is a new solution to Einstein's equations, which Penrose takes to represent the entire Universe, and which is composed of a sequence of sectors that Penrose calls aeons." Roger Penrose


Cyclic Brane Collision

Two parallel M-branes collide periodically in a higher dimensional space.

“The universe the complexities of an inflating universe after a Big Bang are replaced by a universe that was already large, flat, and uniform with dark energy as the effect of the other universe constantly leaking gravity into our own and driving its acceleration. According to this theory, the Big Bang was not the beginning of time but the bridge to a past filled with endlessly repeating cycles of evolution, each accompanied by the creation of new matter and the formation of new galaxies, stars, and planets”. Neil Turok


Self-reproducing-inflationary universe

Scalar fields exceed a critical mass and start procreating new inflationary domains

Andrei Linde proposes the cosmological model of a multiverse, which he calls the "self-reproducing inflationary universe." The theory is based on Alan Guth's inflation model, and it includes multiple universes woven together in some kind of spacetime foam. Each universe exists in a closed volume of space and time. Quite simplified, it suggests quantum fluctuations in the universe's inflationary expansion period to have a wavelike character. Linde theorizes that these waves can "freeze" atop one another, thus magnifying their effect. Wikipedia

rticle interactions. In some inflationary models, quantum flucThe stacked-up quantum waves can in turn create such intense disruptions in scalar fields -the underlying fields that determine the behavior of elementary particles- that they exceed a critical mass and start procreating new inflationary domains. The multiverse is like a growing fractal, sprouting inflationary domains, with each domain spreading and cooling into a new universe. Such complexities in the scalar field mean that after inflation the universe may become divided into exponentially large domains that have different laws of low-energy physics. Note that this division occurs even if the entire universe originally began in the same state, corresponding to one particular minimum of potential energy. Indeed, large quantum fluctuations can cause scalar fields to jump out of their minima. That is, they jiggle some of the balls out of their bowls and into other ones. Each bowl corresponds to alternative laws of patuations are so strong that even the number of dimensions of space and time can change”. Andrei Linde


Continuous loop Self creating universes

An infinite and continuous loop, and that that loop could serve as the "trunk" of a tree that sprouted, giving rise all universes.

In 1998, J. Richard Gott and Li Xin Li . Gott and Li showed that it was possible to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity in such a way that a universe started off going around and around in a continuous loop, and that that loop could serve as the "trunk" of a tree that sprouted, giving rise to our own universe. The way to read this image is that for the most part, time travels from bottom to top, and that everything begins with the little loop at the bottom. That is the origin of the universe. This means that the universe has no beginning, since the loop goes around and around infinitely.

We can talk about the "time after the Big Bang" as the time after the loop sprouted off into the future and a universe was born. You'll also notice that there isn't just a single horn coming out of the initial time loop, but many. This is totally consistent with the concept of a multiverse, just to add another level of speculative awesomeness to the discussion. J.R. Gott and L.-X. Li


Instanton Theory

Hawking-Turok Instanton theory

“The result of Hawking's and Turok's collaboration was the theory that suggested our believed open, inflationary universe formed from miniscule particle called the "instanton."   The instanton was popularized under the nickname of "pea."  An instanton is a sort of theoretical particle developed in physics that is a "twist in matter and space-time."  It got its name from the belief that it lasts for only an instant.  It is much smaller than a pea, though its immense density makes its mass roughly equivalent to that of a pea. The instanton automatically turns itself into an open, inflationary universe”. Wikipedia

Think of inflation as being the dynamite that produced the big bang. Our instanton is a sort of self-lighting fuse that ignites inflation. To have our instanton, you have to have gravity, matter, space and time. Take any one ingredient away, and our instanton doesn't exist.  But if you have an instanton, it will instantly turn into an inflating, infinite universe.Turok So in essence, the universe began from virtually nothing. Neil Turok