Descriptions of Scientifically Based Hypothesized
Universes

Go to the table of alternative universes which has details of each proposal.

The universe formation descriptions on this page are from text mostly
written by the author listed and copied from Wikipedia or other publications.
Minor editing was done in some cases.

**Singularity
Acceleration **

Acceleration
of Dominant Supermassive Black Hole Singularities Serving as the Catalyst of
Dark Energy in the Formation of Universes

Cosmological process
analysis is used to develop the singularity acceleration hypothesis which is
based on nine universe formation axioms. The
resulting theorem explains the mechanism by which dominant supermassive black
hole singularities form and capture all forms of mater and energy. Supermassive
singularity separation from the universe results in a big bang phase transition
in which the laws of the previous universe are suspended. This results in the
loss of gravitational attraction causing a big bang and inflation. The cyclic
process is analogous to a branching universe with each having the following
seven phases that reoccur in each daughter universe:

1. A phase transition big bang that
forms a new universe

2. Expansion of the new universe and
its structure

3. Dispersion of its mass and
increasing entropy

4. Isolation of its galaxy clusters and
supercluster complexes beyond event horizons

5. Many separate consolidations of all
forms of matter, forces, and energy within these supercluster complexes into
dominant supermassive black hole gravitational singularities

6. The resulting acceleration of
singularities warping space to the speed of light

7. The independent separation of each
of these singularities from the universe causing a big bang phase transition
and producing all forms of matter, forces, and energy in a new universe.

John M. Wilson

**Conformal Cyclic
Cosmology**

Universes are a sequence of sectors calls aeons.

“CCC is to connect a countable sequence of open Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker
metric spacetimes, each representing a big
bang followed by an infinite future expansion. Penrose noticed
that the past conformal
boundary of one copy of FLRW spacetime can be "attached"
to the future conformal boundary of another, after an appropriate conformal rescaling. In particular, each individual FLRW metric is multiplied by the square of a
conformal factor that approaches
zero at timelike infinity, effectively "squashing down" the future
conformal boundary to a conformally regular hypersurface (which is space like if there is a positive cosmological
constant). The result is a new solution to Einstein's
equations, which Penrose takes to represent the entire Universe, and which is
composed of a sequence of sectors that Penrose calls aeons." Roger Penrose

__http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/e06/PAPERS/THESPA01.PDF__

**Cyclic Brane Collision**

Two parallel M-branes collide periodically in a
higher dimensional space.

“The universe the
complexities of an inflating universe after a Big Bang are replaced by a
universe that was already large, flat, and uniform with dark energy as the
effect of the other universe constantly leaking gravity into our own and
driving its acceleration. According to this theory, the Big Bang was not the
beginning of time but the bridge to a past filled with endlessly repeating
cycles of evolution, each accompanied by the creation of new matter and the
formation of new galaxies, stars, and planets”. Neil Turok

__http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/turok07/turok07_index.html__

**Self-reproducing-inflationary
universe**

Scalar fields exceed a critical mass and start procreating new inflationary domains

Andrei Linde
proposes the cosmological model of a multiverse, which he calls the
"self-reproducing inflationary universe." The theory is based on Alan
Guth's inflation model, and it includes multiple universes woven together in
some kind of spacetime foam. Each universe exists in a closed volume of space
and time. Quite simplified, it suggests quantum fluctuations in the universe's inflationary
expansion period to have a wavelike character. Linde theorizes that these waves
can "freeze" atop one another, thus magnifying their effect.
Wikipedia

rticle interactions. In some inflationary models, quantum flucThe
stacked-up quantum waves can in turn create such intense disruptions in scalar
fields -the underlying fields that determine the behavior of elementary
particles- that they exceed a critical mass and start procreating new
inflationary domains. The multiverse is like a growing fractal, sprouting
inflationary domains, with each domain spreading and cooling into a new
universe. Such complexities in the scalar field mean that after inflation the
universe may become divided into exponentially large domains that have
different laws of low-energy physics. Note that this division occurs even if
the entire universe originally began in the same state, corresponding to one
particular minimum of potential energy. Indeed, large quantum fluctuations can
cause scalar fields to jump out of their minima. That is, they jiggle some of
the balls out of their bowls and into other ones. Each bowl corresponds to
alternative laws of patuations are so strong that
even the number of dimensions of space and time can change”. Andrei Linde

__http://mukto-mona.net/science/physics/Inflation_lself_prod_inde.pdf__

**Continuous loop
Self creating universes**

An infinite and continuous loop, and that that loop could serve as the "trunk" of a tree that sprouted, giving rise all universes.

In 1998, J. Richard Gott
and Li Xin Li . Gott and Li showed that it was
possible to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity in such a way that
a universe started off going around and around in a continuous loop, and that
that loop could serve as the "trunk" of a tree that sprouted, giving
rise to our own universe. The way to read this image is that for the most part,
time travels from bottom to top, and that everything begins with the little
loop at the bottom. That is the origin of the universe. This means that the
universe has no beginning, since the loop goes around and around infinitely.

We can talk about the
"time after the Big Bang" as the time after the loop sprouted off
into the future and a universe was born. You'll also notice that there isn't
just a single horn coming out of the initial time loop, but many. This is
totally consistent with the concept of a multiverse, just to add another level
of speculative awesomeness to the discussion. J.R. Gott and L.-X. Li

__http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9804311.pdf__

**Instanton****
Theory**

Hawking-Turok Instanton theory

“The result of Hawking's
and Turok's collaboration was the theory that suggested our believed open,
inflationary universe formed from miniscule particle called the
"instanton." The instanton
was popularized under the nickname of "pea." An instanton is a sort of theoretical
particle developed in physics that is a "twist in matter and
space-time." It got its name from
the belief that it lasts for only an instant.
It is much smaller than a pea, though its immense density makes its mass
roughly equivalent to that of a pea. The instanton automatically turns itself
into an open, inflationary universe”. Wikipedia

Think of inflation as
being the dynamite that produced the big bang. Our instanton is a sort of
self-lighting fuse that ignites inflation. To have our instanton, you have to
have gravity, matter, space and time. Take any one ingredient away, and our
instanton doesn't exist. But if you have
an instanton, it will instantly turn into an inflating, infinite universe.Turok
So in essence, the universe began from virtually nothing. Neil Turok